Just because someone can read and write does not mean that all bottom-up structures are in place. Keep your literacy lens on for the one or two items that may be simple fixes. For example, sometimes an older student is missing the recognition of a letter or they are missing the graphophonic connection. Other similar bottom-up structures may be missing. Somewhere along their line of literacy learning, that small piece of the puzzle is ignored. It is time to notice this and fill in the gap. It will reduce student stress while reading and writing.

Look for patterns in student work that follow the "one error in one hundred right moves" (Smith, 2014). To prepare yourself as a teacher, for the items that might be missing/ignored it is essential that your review the possibilities yourself. They are automatic in your own reading/writing but the teacher/tutor must now use their discipline of noticing to inform the learner. You might find the following materials helpful in noticing what patterns to look for:

Phonological Awareness and Phonemes with Peggy Semingson

Reading-Tutors phonics free package materials & samples

Reading-Tutors additional free materials & samples

Root Words downloads (Latin and Greek roots) 

Free Phonological Materials in a Guide

Freddie Hiebert talks about Vocabulary and the Digital Global Age (YouTube)

For Young Ones - Teach Your Monster to Read  

ASCD Recommended Vocabulary Sites...


Example ... Jazz Band vocabulary search from vocabulary.com

Flocabulary.com - songs, vidoes, to support K-12 vocabulary building.

Vocabahead.com - word lists, games and other assorted activities. 

Lexipedia - online visual word site. 

Wordnik - definitions, tables, alternatives takes on words.  

Lingro - learn vocabulary and language quickly

Snappy Words - Interactive dictionary and thesaurus. Associated words lists. 

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